Two nights instead of three. Still left me a full day to explore this area. Its center is the old Empire Cattle Ranch. Cows from three different companies still graze the grasslands. Empire was organized in 1874, though an existing ranch was here probably much earlier. Nothing about what was going on here before that is related in the interpretive material. This was Apache homeland. They created problems for the European-Americans by trying to protect their territories and resources. “Renegades” they are called. Geronimo and his family among them.

I am impressed by the variety of the landscape here, notable among the trees that grow here. The grasslands are populated by mesquite. Around the springs and the waterways that flow from them are large cottonwoods. And up one wide wash are stands of big spreading Arizona white oaks. They grow up the hillside in smaller sizes. Reminds me a lot of California.